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WOC 2022

Reza Goodarzi

Reza Goodarzi, Speaker at Obesity Conferences
lorestan university of medical sciences ,imam hospital of borujerd, Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Title : The Weight Loss With Energy Restriction With Gentle Slope


Obesity is one of the main health challenges of many countries, especially developed ones. The most important part of the obesity treatment plan is a change in lifestyle, including increased physical activity combined with a healthy diet. However, people in the community, especially obese individuals, do not have the right attitude towards a healthy diet and sometimes they are afraid of the word ' diet '. One of the important tasks for dietitians is to deal with this issue and change the attitude of obese people towards the diet in order to reduce people's fear and anxiety about the diet and to be able to ensure a proper diet for these people.

Another important point to keep in mind, when setting up a diet, is that it should be practicable and not conflict with the lifestyle and diet of obese individuals so that one can implement this regime. Therefore, it is recommended to change the eating habits of people with a gentle slope in reducing energy intake; and even changes that need to be made in people's lifestyles must be feasible for the individual.

People's attitudes toward diet

Changing the diet of both individuals and groups is somewhat difficult because many factors affect food choices, such as a person's health, attitudes toward food, and people's eating habits which all are important factors that are very difficult to change. People's habit and dependency on eating is very addictive, which cannot be changed in a short time. Especially in the case of obese people, this dependence on food is much more severe and it is very difficult to reduce this dependence to a great extent to a degree that eating in the these people is an involuntary reflex. This dependence on eating habits has made obese people afraid to quit eating and therefore do not think about changing their diet or moving towards changing their diet at all.

Practicability of Diet

On the other hand, a diet designed for obese people should be practicable, for example, the food menu set for them should be from foods available to the persons and they should not be prescribed inaccessible foods. And in this diet, one should have the freedom to choose different and available foods.

Calculate the caloric intake of obese people

In the conventional method, different formulas (e.g. harris benedict, etc) are used to calculate the calories received by people, or the person's weight is multiplied by kilocalories and the person's diet is adjusted based on that. It seems to the author, who has worked in hospitals and clinics for more than twenty years counselling on nutrition and meal planning, using this method of calculating energy intake is not recommended due to the fact that people have different genetics and different metabolism.

The best way to obtain accurate information about people’s energy and food intake is to have a proper interview and probing questions that will determine the clients' food intake as well as eating habits. For example, asking about the amount of bread or rice consumed at each meal, the hours of waking and sleeping, the time of breakfast, lunch and dinner, and also asking about the amount and type of snacks are very important.

Adjusting diet plan

Once the clients' food intake, calorie intake and eating habits are determined, the dietitian should adjust the diet so that it is very close to the  individual person’s food intake and eating habits. For example, in the first session, only  10% of energy intake should be reduced. The dietitians   should make a small change in a person's eating habits and their expectation should not be too high and beyond the patient's ability. So that the person can adapt well to the regulated diet. Then, the required number of units from the individual food groups (for example, the number of units from the group of bread and cereals, milk and dairy products, etc.) should be determined and divided  into breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks. On the other hand, a list of alternative foods  from  the main food groups (e.g. bread and cereals, milk and dairy products, fruits, vegetables, meat and protein) should be provided to the individual to have the freedom to choose the food available.

The adjusted diet plan should also include the recommended meals in breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks and should provide different choices for the person in these meals.

Three snacks should also be included in the diet to prevent hunger between breakfasts to lunch, lunch to dinner and late at night.

Providing list of food substitutes

A person who is prescribed a diet should also receive a list of the main food groups with energy-equivalents of food intake so that one can be informed about  the energy received by eating.

You can use the American Dietetic Association food exchange lists to check out serving sizes for each group of foods and to see what other food choices are available for each group of foods.


Dr. Reza Goodarzi has received his bachelor degree of Nutrition from  Tabriz Medical Sciences in 1998, and completed his  Master of Science from Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2011 and in 2020 he received his PhD Degree from Ahvaz Jundishapur University.  He is currently working as a dietitian at Imam Hospital of Borujerd affiliated to Lorestan University of Medical Sciences. He has published more than 9 papers indexed by ISI / PubMed, and has been the principal investigator for 5 clinical trials. His main areas of interests are obesity and diabetes.