Title : Effect of physical exercise on adiposity and aerobic fitness in middle age women differing in body mass
Overweight and/or obesity is a growing problem over the world. Alongside a range of health problems associated with increased body mass (BM) – adiposity and reducing of fitness level it is an important limiting factor for realization of regular physical exercise and quality of life. The study goal was to assess the effect of movement intervention in women differing in the BM. Study was carried out in 56 women with normal BM (mean age=44.7±3.2years; BM=65.3±3.2kg; height=166.0±4.1cm; %BF=24.1±2.1%), 49 overweight women (43.9 ± 3.2; 80.3±3.1; 167.1±4.0; 28.9±2.2), and 41 obese women (43.8±3.0; 92.3±4.1; 166.3±3.2; 32.1±3.4). All these subjects were without regularly movement training before the starting of intervention. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance method using prediction equations that are valid for the Czech middle aged women population, functional variables were assessed on a treadmill. The majority of exercise was aerobic (85%) with an intensity of exercise assessed by HR ranged from 80 to 90% of HRpeak determined on treadmill. Rest of movement activities were activities like an aerobic and/or home gymnastic, swimming, etc.. The energy content of weekly movement program for women with normal BM ranged from 1000 kcal to 2300 kcal (mean 1600±350 kcal) in females with overweight from 1350 kcal to 2420 kcal (1800±270 kcal) and in obese women from 1710 kcal to 2540 kcal (2100±330 kcal). After 10 weeks of intervention, the reduction in %BF ranged from 15.6% in obese to 14.1% in normal BM of starting value, ECM/BCM relationship decreased from 11.9% in subjects with normal BM to 13.8% in obese, and in VO2peak increased from 15.2% in normal BM to 16.4% in obese. In middle aged women differing in BM are absolute changes in adiposity and aerobic fitness like a result of imposed movement intervention substantively and statistically significant. On the contrary, differences in percentages of pre-intervention values are non-significant. We can conclude that an exercise program with a similar energy content, form and intensity causes the similar changes in adiposity and in motor and functional performance in women, differing in BM.